Glosar European de Restaurare Icoana

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Conservation-restoration as a discipline and profession is directly involved in the safeguarding of this heritage for future generations.

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The discipline has a long history evolving over many centuries and spreading across Europe. Today, conservator-restorers share common professional principles and although communication is not always easy in a continent rich in languages, a professional terminology has developed both at national level and international level.

Terminology at national level may have some specific features, often related to the regional techniques and materials used, or specific characteristics of the cultural heritage in a particular country. This fact reflects the diversity of our heritage, but at the same time it can cause difficulties in communication.

Glosar European de Restaurare Icoana

It is critical for the professionals in conservation-restoration to be able to understand each other in what is now a highly professionalised field and to communicate correctly, explicitly and easily. Clear and exact communication not only guarantees better results, but helps avoid misunderstandings and reduces the risk of malpractice in the conservation and restoration of cultural heritage. Wall paintings and architectural surfaces are a significant part of the European heritage.

The traditions of conservationrestoration within this facet of heritage can be traced back to the Renaissance.

In spite of the cultural diversity, the principles in the conservation and restoration of wall paintings and architectural surfaces are the same around the continent. Several attempts were made in the last decade to create such a dictionary, but without success so far.

The EwaGlos project is an admirable initiative in this direction. With its eleven languages, this is going to be the most ambitious dictionary to date. It will be an important instrument for communication which, undoubtedly, will benefit both conservator-restorers and other professionals involved in the preservation of wall paintings and architectural surfaces.

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The preservation and often restoration of printed works and archival material had been a concern inter alia, to libraries and archives for a long time, but only made a massive impact when the dramatic deterioration of such material became a wide-spread phenomenon. This may be somewhat true for the broader field which encompasses the discovery, analysis and protection of all types of historical monuments, which work has been ongoing for a long time but which gained vital momentum aroundwith the rediscovery of the importance of monuments and municipal architecture.

International organisations, or specialised sectors within them, together with specific programmes that did not exist 50 years ago, arose and supported upcoming projects ; this is due to the ever-growing importance and recognition of this society-wide duty of heritage preservation. But still, such endeavours often remained somewhat sector-specific and language-specific and within the limits of the very particular contexts which gave rise to their existence.

This is only one side of the gigi jerseylicious pierdere în greutate of that impetuous development. Such skilled practical work and scientific study necessarily bring along with them the development, step-by-step, of new terminology, in different languages: practice and procedures give rise to linguistic expression, specialized terms emerge, and as new phenomena are discovered, all these call for adequate phraseology and terminology.

This is the point where the long standing, centuries-old terminology associated with the skills and the craft and eco slim tatăl of art history and the care of monuments come together, with the addition of more recent specialised technical language in the field.

The new fields of practice, and later of science, in a specific domain first generate, slowly, special linguistic expressions, which later become lists of specialised words.

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Subsequently, these words often need an explanation to be understood, within and outside their context, so glossaries are added to the literature. These are usually specific and event- based.

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Thus, the first systematic dictionaries start being compiled. Good definitions are always the combination of comprehensive subject knowledge and trained terminological abilities, because certain precisely defined features are required of a good definition. In addition, picture dictionaries can help the correct understanding of the meaning of certain terms. The moment for lexicon-based articles, partial and complete encyclopedias has come nevertheless, gently and softly, during this process, something of Terminology as an organised discipline and practice comes into play here and this also includes the science on which it is based of good use of language within a field, the procedures involved, resulting in exact scientific recording and data interchange as possibilities.

А мне бы, честно-то говоря, не хотелось этого делать -- разве что только в самом уж крайнем случае. Олвин про себя заинтересовался, что же именно Хилвар считал самым крайним случаем. И только он собрался предположить -- не без сарказма, -- что увиденное ими вполне стоит того, чтобы кого-то и разбудить, как Хилвар заговорил снова: -- Я вспомнил.

It is no miracle that the establishing of some general and methodical foundations for such work with words is also taking place at the same time. Terminology has evolved from the early s onwards, as has the professional practice which has been framing and helping sometimes guiding language-based descriptions. In this way, ever-increasing and better understanding and communication in the more and more complex technical fields can be achieved in an up-to-date way.

It is, then, very appropriate that at this moment a project enters the scene that strives to present the carefully elaborated, upto-date terminology of Wall paintings and architectural surfaces, one area in the study of, and care for, an important field in cultural heritage nurturing gigi jerseylicious pierdere în greutate monument conservation. The formation of a group of experts and the undertaking of a cum de a pierde guvernul de greutate to bring together, from appropriate and skilled minds, a unified form of this knowledge as it now stands, and a negotiated common understanding of the professional language in the gigi jerseylicious pierdere în greutate, is a logical consequence.

Carefully researched dictionaries of every kind are always an indispensible requisite for any kind of standardised work procedure, guidelines, or standards themselves.

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Standardisation gigi jerseylicious pierdere în greutate cultural issues? That sounds strange or dangerous does it not? But there is no reason for concern here. Standardisation does and shall always concern only a limited, clearly defined range of individual technical procedures, never the contents of cultural institutions, the artistic appreciation of gigi jerseylicious pierdere în greutate individual acupunctura pentru slabit object or the interpretation of the objects.

Indeed, common endeavours of this type and the joining of forces arrived even later when it comes to cultural heritage; here, condensed technical knowledge, a unified approach to structuring it and making it accessible to the technical community as a whole, also have their natural place in the national and transnational bodies of standardisation.

It was only in that CEn the Comit europen de normalization was the first such body to create a new Technical Committee on the Conservation of cultural property which now has over 50 projects and some 20 published standards the majority of the standards dealing, very concretely, with methods and components of conservation science and the care of monuments and cultural heritage connected with them, both indoors and outdoors.

There are also quite a number of standards for test methods, but particular attention might be drawn to En Conservation of cultural property : main terms and definitions which contains 50 fundamental gigi jerseylicious pierdere în greutate of the cornerstones 10 of cultural heritage preservation, such as conservation, remedial conservation, restoration, repair, value etc. It is based on a carefully selected word list of the most important technical terms in the field of wall paintings, its entries aptly combine a short delimiting definition with a subsequent lexicon-style explanation and information useful and required for the full understanding of each issue and its associated term.

EwaGlos is organised on a subject-oriented basis; it is substantially multilingual, and each entry spans over two facing pages so that easy overview over all of the entries is guaranteed. In addition, it has images for each of the phenomena which are listed through their terms and which are so explained.

Thus, EwaGlos should indeed be a very valuable means of reference, a means of communication among those working in the field, a help in professional education and development, and also a good presentation of its specific subject field to a general audience. It is certainly the basis from which further useful tools for the conservation community could be developed, such as possibly word lists authorities for incorporation into conservation-related databases gigi jerseylicious pierdere în greutate IT tools.

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EwaGlos is a respectable achievement and a big step to bring forward the work, the insights and the academic education of future experts who are still currently undertaking academic and practical studies. I do wish EwaGlos a warm response, success in its professional field, and I should like to thank its authors and its editor for accepting the burden of developing such a sophisticated product while additionally also considering fundamental technical standards in the field of such work.

The EwaGlos project, and this publication which arises as a result of it, represents an important step to create a much needed tool to facilitate communication across cultures and languages through the medium of word and image. This task is not easy, as the extensive discussions and deliberations within the working groups of the EwaGlos project bore witness since to define meaning with clarity and precision, not just in one language but in many, is a semantic challenge which requires exactness not only of language but of concept.

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The exercise opens up hitherto unexplored territory, as drawing a distinction between what is true and what is false can prove something of a conundrum, owing to the inevitable multiplicity and mutability of meanings across cultural contexts and over time: there are at least twenty-four possible aspects of any single statement, depending on where you are standing at the time or on what the weathers like.

A categorical statement I find will never stay where it is and be finite. It will immediately be subject to modification by the other twenty-three possibilities of it.

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I suggest there can be no hard distinctions between what is real and what is unreal, nor between what is true and what is false. A thing is not necessarily either true or false; it can be both true and false. Pinter, Harold, Introduction: Writing for the Theatre.

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Harold Pinter, Plays: one. Bearing in mind the difficulties expressed by Pinter refer to the navigation of meaning within a single language when multiplied across many, the challenge becomes Herculean! The link between explaining and understanding is vital, not only in the sense of being something of fundamental importance, but also in that it is alive.

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Deeper understanding comes through explaining, but to do so requires a process of re-examination of words and concepts which challenges any reliance on all too easily and for some of us long ago accepted notions, and through this comes greater awareness of how usage and meaning continue to evolve.

In addition to the terminology related to historic wall paintings and their conservation, new words are entering the field for example, in relation to contemporary street art and so, no doubt, future glossaries in this area will include terms such as buffing, tagging, reverse graffiti, legal wall etc. In addition to its textual definitions, EwaGlos is a plentiful resource for images to clarify and communicate, and contains a wealth of references to important bibliographic sources and as such will no doubt prove a valuable tool for didactic purposes.

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Indeed, EwaGlos draws upon a rich tradition of technical sfaturi permanente de pierdere în greutate literature for wall paintings conservation in many languages for example, the various language editions of mora, mora and Philippots seminal work The conservation of wall paintings mora et al.

However, EwaGlos takes these initiatives in wall paintings conservation a step further not only in the array of languages covered eleven in total but also in making its results available online as an open access publication under a creative commons licence, thereby producing a resource that is through the internet freely available and open to all.

For many years ICCRom has campaigned for improved communication and dialogue across languages, cultures and disciplines.

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From a global and historical perspective, the EwaGlos project represents a valuable and noteworthy effort to draw together the international community to create a usable tool. It is to pierde grăsimea corporală pe întreținere hoped that this will be the starting point for future initiatives to develop and enlarge EwaGlos, to extend its scope beyond Europe.

The inclusion of further languages and terms, and ongoing revision and development of the collected definitions will create a living communication tool for the global wall paintings conservation community, which reflects and serves a professional field and a form of cultural expression which is not static but rather very much alive.